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Introduction:
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid found in animal fats such as red meat, dairy products and some vegetable oils that has been touted for its positive effects on obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and multiple cancers (den Hartigh, 2018). Out of the 28 known isomers, the two that have shown broad anti-carcinogenic properties are cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, which induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation, respectively (Basak and Duttaroy, 2020). However, other studies have suggested that the minor isomers such as trans-9, trans-11 may be more effective at inhibiting in vitro cell growth than their more abundant counterparts (Kelley et al, 2007). Although multiple studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of CLA treatment for cancers of the breast, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, limited research has been conducted on the effectiveness of CLA against ovarian cancer (Shahzad et al, 2018). Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been the focus of recent studies, as it is the sixth most common cancer in women and one of the most aggressive and chemoresistant forms of the disease (Shahzad et al, 2018). The lethality of ovarian cancer and lack of current effective chemotherapy options indicates a need for further research regarding treatment methods and prevention. Among other anti-carcinogenic properties, CLA is being investigated for its inhibitory effect on -catenin as part of the Wnt signaling pathway. -catenin is a potent factor in tumor progression, and it is the aim of this research proposal to determine the effectiveness of trans-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth, as determined via measurement of -catenin and Ki-67 protein expression.

Background:
Ovarian cancer is the fifth-leading cause of cancer deaths in women, and the most lethal of all gynecological malignancies (Long et al, 2018). Lack of specific early symptoms and inadequate early detection strategies have attributed to persistently low survival rates, despite a 33% decline in overall mortality significantly since the 1970s (Torre et al, 2018). Chemotherapeutic advancements have attributed to decreased mortality, but there remains a dire need for innovative technologies targeted at treatment and prevention. Recent focus on obesity-related disease has noted a positive correlation between increased body fat and increased instance of some cancers, in part because excess fat tissue can hyperstimulate production of hormones such as insulin or estrogen that may cause cancer cells to grow (Moon, 2018). As a result, much research has been conducted regarding chemotherapies that can aid in the reduction of overall bodyfat percentages, with hopes that the same treatments could possibly be used in the management or chemoprevention of obesity-related cancers (Moon, 2018). Studies suggest that dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can provide both of these elements.

Conjugated linoleic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids with 28 known isomers which can be found naturally in ruminant animal food products, and have been identified as possessing anti-obesogenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherosclerotic properties (den Hartigh, 2018). Most research has centered on the cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers and their effects on various disease processes and biochemical signaling pathways. Previous murine studies have indicated that CLA induces apoptosis in tumor cells, exhibits anti-angiogenic properties, and promotes anti-proliferation in cancer cells, although the effectiveness of treatment may decline administered in more advanced disease states(den Hartigh, 2018). This temporal-dependent finding indicates that CLA administration should be further investigated as a potential preventative or early-management therapy of certain cancers.

Type of service: Writing incl . calculations
Type of assignment: Research paper
Subject: Biology
Pages /words: 3/825
Number of sources: 8
Academic level: Junior(college 3rd year)
Paper format: MLA
Line spacing: Double
Language style: US English