The American two-party system started almost immediately after independence from the British and the issues on how to divide the power they now had brought disagreements thus leading to two distinct factions; the federalists and the anti-federalists. The division was based on the constitutional interpretations; the federalists interpreted the constitution as giving more power to the federal government while the anti-federalists
begged to differ on grounds that the constitution prescribed for decentralization of the power. These two groups did not last as to end the row, the constitution was amended and power decentralized.
As the government started running, divisions were created again due to the policies the 1 st president, George Washington made and thus a line was drawn between Conservative (although they preferred to be identified as the Federalists) and Thomas Jefferson faction who were aligned to Democratic-Republican ideals.
George Washington’s successor, John Adams who was not so much likable as to his ideals led to the death of the Federalists as most supporters abandoned the party for Democratic-Republican. After the 1812 war, there was an economical crisis that created a political vacuum and when John Quincy Adams was declared president by the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay in 1824, there was a faction that believe that the popular General
Jackson should have been the president and thus the supporters vowed to prove their worth in 1828 when Jackson (a veteran for both the revolutionary and 1812 war) dubbed Democrat clenched the presidency and the anti-Jackson were dubbed the republicans.
To date, these are the popular parties in America. (USHistory.org) Like the two national parties, California, also prescribes to a two-party system;
the Democratic Party and the GOP (the Republicans aka the Good Old Party). At the time of being declared to statehood in 1850, the Democratic Party held majority seats but with the slavery conflicts The Republican moved in and took control for about two decades although the Democratic Party was still in the electorate and at the start the division was based on the rail road and governmental corruption. (USHistory.org)
Voter-turn out factors
The reason to vote is a factor that influences voter turn out both in California and at national level; voters believe that in voting they are shaping the politics and the governance within their jurisdiction. When voters feel that their voting will bring change they want, they will not hesitate to present their say at the ballot boxes. Californians as well as Americans at large believe that voting is influential.
In California, there exists a group who are not aligned to the two political parties and this affects the turn out because they do not feel welcomed to vote. This group stays away from the ballot boxes as they feel no on cares about their views. Others will vote for the candidate and not the party. This factor is not a major issue at the national level although there are some ounces of doubt in representation at the national level too.
Voting at the national level is a civic tradition while in California; it is aligned more on cultural practice rather than civic. It is a well established knowledge that first time voters’ participation is influenced by family at state level or lower but national they feel live their civic duty to participate in the vote.
Trust and faith in the incumbent party/politician is a factor that cannot be ignored. Voters both at state level and national level are always
motivated to vote so as to retain or withdraw from power a particular politician or party when they feel the incumbent party or politicians are not fulfilling their promises or responding to the socioeconomic concerns and others. (Non-profit.org 2010)
Non-profit vote.org ‘Voter Turnout Factors’, 2010. Retrieved on March 6, 2011 from
UShistory.org ‘From Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium’ Retrieved on March 6,
2011 from http://www.ushistory.org/us/