The focus is to formulate a methodological process aimed to examine the mediating effects of Mindfulness on the Relationship between Self-efficacy, State-Trait Anxiety, and Foreign Language Anxiety among Students in Secondary Schools, Klang Valley Malaysia.
3.2 Correlational Design
Mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into the education process due to its acclaimed benefits to learning. Its popularity is tied to self-efficacy, state-trait anxiety, and foreign language among learners. This research intends to establish associations between mindfulness, and the acclaimed implications on self-efficacy, state-trait anxiety, and foreign language anxiety among students in Secondary Schools, Klang Valley Malaysia. Correlational approaches are adopted in the study of these associations, as they are imperative in determining both the statistical relationship between the variables, and the degree of strength of the established relationship is (Seeram, 2019). Creswell (2014) notes that the statistical techniques of correlational design are descriptive and they are imperative in defining two variables that seemingly occur within the same temporal space. The relationship addressed will be between mindfulness and self-efficacy; mindfulness and state-trait anxiety; and mindfulness and foreign language anxiety among students in Secondary Schools, Klang Valley Malaysia.
According to Curtis, Comiskey, and Dempsey (2016) correlational designs generally have three possible outcome spaces, which are marked by coefficients between -1 through to 1. Negative correlation embeds on the negative spectrum of the correlation coefficients, and the smaller the coefficient value the stronger the negative correlation between the variables. A negative correlation is translated to an inverse correlation, where the increased integration of mindfulness will result in similar proportions of a decrease in the variable under study, say self-efficacy. A positive correlation is delineated as a direct and parallel increase or reduction in both mindfulness and either self-efficacy, state-trait anxiety, or foreign language anxiety. The larger the positive coefficient number, the more parallel the increase or reduction in the variables. Seeram (2019) stated that at zero, the relationship between the variables is null. Bloomfield and Fisher (2019) held that despite indicating a correlation between the variables, the correlation design does not identify which of the two variables impacts more on the other. Moreover, the presence of correlation is not outright in defining the relationship between the variables as causal (Creswell, 2014).
The correlational design is based on the philosophies of atomism and phenomenalism and the use of scientific law; which are the attribution of the positivism paradigm (Park, Konge, and Artino, 2020). Through atomism, the study breaks down the implications of mindfulness on Secondary School, Klang Valley Malaysia students into three categories namely self-efficacy, state-trait anxiety, and foreign language anxiety. Hassan (2016) postulates that by breaking down any phenomena into smaller understandable parts, the phenomena as a whole can be studied. Positivists use phenomenalism to establish that only that which is objectively observable by human sensory experiences, has a utility in building valid information (Kelly, Dowling & Millar, 2017). The study uses statistical observations to make its claim, hence by scientific laws; the insight gained is applicable beyond the sampled subjects.
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