Nutrition and exercise are more important than ever during the pandemic period, especially among patients with obesity. Obesity is one of the most prevalent conditions in the United States, affecting more than 70 million Americans (CDC, 2021). Diet and exercise have proven to generate positive results in terms of body weight reduction and minimizing risk factors of lifestyle and chronic illness (CDC, 2021). However, while most people had diet or exercise routines during the pre-pandemic period, the Covid-19 pandemic has led to significant stress, anxiety, and lifestyle disruptions, and many individuals are struggling to maintain healthy habits as a result. The current paper seeks to understand which of these variables—diet or exercise—can generate the most beneficial health outcomes for homebound adult patients with obesity. Your introduction needs a statement about what this paper will present. What are its goals and aims…
Accordingly, the paper explores the PICO question— in adult patients with obesity (P), how effective is Keto diet (I) compared to walking a mile a day (C) in controlling healthy body weight (O) when patients are homebound during a pandemic (T)? This question narrows the field of interest to patients who are obese (e.g., BMI over 30) and who attempt to manage the symptoms and effects of their obesity via certain interventions, such as Keto dieting or regular walking exercise. In the discussion of the question, you need to clearly identify all the elements of the PICOT question including the setting, and outcome measures……
Independent Variable: Keto Diet
Recent studies, including laboratory tests, have shown that the ketogenic diet, which is the independent variable, is effective in weight loss. Despite constant recommendations from health professionals, diet interventions have failed to generate effective results, since lifestyle ailments such as obesity have increased profoundly (Paoli, 2014). Numerous studies have shown that the keto diet has a solid biochemical and physiological basis and can improve cardiovascular risk parameters including inducing weight loss but may not help in the long term (Paoli, 2014).
Dietary patterns are extensively linked to the overall survival of adults, specifically senior citizens. Petrenya and collages (2019) investigated dietary patterns in rural northern Norway and noted that lifestyle and sociodemographic factors impacted diet plans. Similarly, Anderson and collages (2011) investigated the dietary patterns of a cohort of senior citizens, exploring the link between nutrition and survival within ten years. The researchers observed that dietary patterns consistent with ketogenic guidelines of eating more vegetables, fish, poultry, whole grains, and fruits led to increased quality of life and better outcomes in older adults (Anderson et al., 2011). Physical exercise like walking, which is another independent variable, have shown great benefits in patients with obesity, including a more positive outlook and the reduction of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (Vincent, 2015).
Dependent Variable: Weight Loss
The dependent variable is the amount of weight loss. Healthy body weight for people who are overweight is important because of the increased body fat on their ankles, knees, hips, and lower back, consequently overloading and injuring the muscles and soft tissues that support these joints during physical activity. Furthermore, persons with obesity require extra effort during exercise (Vincent, 2015). In turn, this may reduce the enjoyment and willingness to engage in regular exercise. The possibility that walking may be a good outsource for less injury and support of their joints may lessen the efforts for a more sustainable habit (Vincent, 2015).
In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels, and numerous diseases associated with obesity, including heart disease, certain cancers, and diabetes, are also increasing as a result. The key to treating or preventing these conditions is weight loss through lifestyle changes and increasing physical activity, including a hypocaloric-like diet and behavioral techniques to support these changes (Zachary et al., 2020).
Research extensively links unhealthy dietary patterns to obesity (Kałucka et al., 2019; Jezewska-Zychowicz et al., 2018) and, in adults, the risk elements associated with unhealthy eating habits include lack of awareness, lifestyle changes, globalization, and poverty, among other factors (Cheikh Ismail et al., 2020). Covid-19 has amplified these risk factors, making it difficult to maintain a regular keto diet plan.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a complex situation in our time, thus becoming a confounding variable that makes it more difficult to treat people with obesity with appropriate food intake and physical activity. Depression, anxiety, and job loss—all of which have reportedly increased during the pandemic (Zachary et al., 2020)—can have lasting effects on weight and metabolic health. For example, “the harder a person’s stress, the harder it is for that person to lose weight” (Lim et al., 2020). Thus, during the Covid-19 pandemic, the increased time at home, the impaired sleep patterns, the lower physical activity, and the higher stress may have made weight control more difficult (Lim et al., 2020); and those same factors may even have caused new weight gain in persons who were not already classified as ‘obese’ prior to the pandemic. Cumulatively, these factors make the Covid-19 pandemic a confounding variable that may have important effects on both the dependent and the independent variables.
Type Of Service: Academic Paper Writing
Type of Assignment: Essay
Pages / Words: 3/825
Number of sources: 3
Academic Level: Master’s
Paper Format: APA
Line Spacing: Double
Language Style: US English