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: Results and discussion
4.1. Introduction
As must have been stated in the literature, the phrase lexical density has been applied to identify the level of complexity of words as well as to measure the ratio of content words or lexical items such as adverbs, adjectives, verbs, and nouns to the total number of words used in a text (Halliday, 1989). On the other hand, grammatical intricacy implies the language complexity in a given text with the complexity being estimated by the total number of clauses used in the sentence (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004). Lexical density and grammatical intricacy are important linguistic features that determine the contextual quality of any given written or reading text. For instance, creating a well-organized piece of reading texts requires the use of essential features of written language and the knowledge of organizing lexical items (e.g., nouns, adverbs, adjectives, and verbs) and grammatical elements such as sentences and clauses. Unlike in spoken texts, reading texts present their own complexity as portrayed from features of grammatical intricacy and lexical density. Hanafiah and Yusuf (2016) ascertained that any given reading language usually presents some level of complexity when it bears a high score of lexical density, which implies it keeps holds a relatively large number of lexical items in each and every clause. On the other side, a reading text or spoken language tend to be more complex or sophisticated by simply being intricate grammatically.
For any given reading or written text, it claimed that more lexical items require fewer clauses in order to be accommodated appropriately, yet they still remain to be part of the entire text’s grammatical structure. This trend tends to portray a consistent relationship between the lexical density and grammatical intricacy elements in given reading texts. This chapter will present the results and discussion of the same where the data were drawn from the reading texts of Sunrise English textbooks used in the Kurdistan education program. Since schools in Kurdistan use the book as the primary source for purposes of learning English, a number of reading texts in the textbooks have been identified and picked depending on the text length and genre to satisfy the readability comparison need of the texts among the selected grades (e.g., grade 10, 11, and 12).
The discussion has emphasized establishing the range of lexical density and grammatical intricacy in the reading passages of the identified textbook. Similarly, the incremental increase in the lexical density and grammatical intricacy between the reading passages of different levels of Sunrise English textbooks has been looked into. Therefore, the chapter is going to analyze the lexical density and grammatical intricacy aspects of the identified reading texts as extracted from Sunrise English textbooks. The study has deployed Ure and Halliday’s approaches to measure the ratios of lexical items and the ratios of grammatical clauses, respectively. Ure’s approach uses a scale above 40 per cent to justify a text as narrative and neither descriptive nor reports, whereas Halliday’s approach uses a complexity scale of 3 to 6, depending on the formality of the text (To, Fan, & Thomas, 2013). Eggins’ formula was very instrumental in calculating the scores. After this brief introduction, the chapter begins will begin with analyzing four selected reading texts in grade 12. Each of the texts has been analyzed passage after passage. Subsequently, the analysis has proceeded to the two reading texts of grade 11 followed by grade 10.

Type Of Service: Dissertation services
Type of Assignment: Dissertation
Subject: English
Pages / word: 1/250
Number of sources: N/A
Academic Level: Master’s
Paper format: MLA
Line Spacing: Double
Language style: UK English

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