Schizophrenia is a mental disorder caused by numerous factors. Problems like impaired drive characterise it, thought disorder, delusions, decreased perception, abnormal emotional regulation, and altered motor function (Hu et al., 2017). The multifactorial nature of Schizophrenia makes it a complex disease. These multiple factors that affect its occurrence include a mixture of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The use of medications alone has proven not to be 100% effective, leading to the incorporation of other methods and medications.
Evidence Base for CBT
CBT is employed in patients with psychosis by singling out individual problematic areas and tackling them. For instance, if a schizophrenic patient has delusions and depression, each of these problems will be handled separately. Candida et al. (2016) state that the endorsement of CBT in the treatment of Schizophrenia by countries like The United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, among others, proves the effectiveness of this method. Further, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the U.K. proposes CBT as the primary method of intervention for those at-risk (Candida et al., 2016). This method is used together with medication to help avert the side effects of the medication.
According to Sitko et al. (2020), CBT’s effectiveness rises overtime for delusions. Candida et al. (2016) further state that cognitive behaviour therapy effectively treats delusions and hallucinations. In their study, Turner et al. (2020) found that in comparison to other methods, like TAU, CBT was superior for hallucinations and delusions. However, compared with A.C., CBT was superior for hallucinations but not delusions. Finally, Kennedy and Xyrichis (2017) state that CBT is effective against auditory hallucinations but has no significant advantage in performance over other methods like non-specialised therapy. Therefore, CBT is effective and recommended for the treatment of delusions and hallucinations for patients with Schizophrenia.
Candida et al. (2016) affirm that CBT has substantial effects on positive and negative symptoms and that CBT has long-term benefits. CBT’s long-term effects enable Schizophrenia patients to develop coping mechanisms to the negative and positive symptoms. Since the CBT treatment is only carried out for 16 weeks, the patients can cope with the symptoms after the CBT intervention. In their study to compare CBT with other psychosocial interventions for Schizophrenia, Jones et al. (2018) also found that CBT has reductive effects on positive symptoms. Granholm, Holden, and Worley (2017), on the other hand, found that cognitive-behavioural therapy interventions that are aimed at dysfunctional attitudes help reduce negative symptoms. The treatment of negative symptoms is essential in Schizophrenia patients since they are related to functioning.
Some studies have shown that CBT is also effective in other areas, like reducing depression and anxiety, improving interpersonal relations, and increasing the patients’ self-esteem. However, Jones et al. (2018) cite inconsistent evidence for reducing stress and depression but affirm the effectiveness of CBT on the reduction of problem behaviour, interpersonal and emotional problems, depression, social anxiety, relapse, and increase patients’ self-esteem. A study conducted by Laws et al. (2018) avers that CBT has small effects on patients’ psychotic symptoms and significant benefits on non-symptomatic areas. These non-symptomatic areas include functioning, quality of life, and distress. Laws et al. (2018) conclude that CBT improves life quality, increases function, and reduces distress. Granholm et al. (2017) also mention the effectiveness of CBT on functioning. Finally, CBT is cost-effective for both mental health care facilities and patients. Ising et al. (2017) state that CBT has significantly higher effectiveness and is less costly than other
REWORK and AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT
Your rationale as to why this is a complex need area needs to be developed further.
You have not included policies in the points related to the role of family and nurses you are considering to use. Also, you need to explain the intervention a bit more, i.e., is this low intensity intervention, what actually nurses do when doing low intensity intervention.
Critical analysis & synthesis: This is the component that carries the highest mark of 45%, so it needs to be well developed and more strengthened in the context of Mental Health Nursing perspective (that you are studying). Endeavour to use some primary studies instead of literature review only.
Please use Harvard referencing guideline, also ensure you reference your poster.
Type Of Service: Rewriting
Type Of assignment: Essay
Number of sources: 5
Academic Level: Master’s
Paper Format: Harvard
Line Spacing: Double
Language style: UK English