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Guidance for Exercise 4
• Please use a legible font (for example, Times New Roman 12), use
double spacing for your assignments, and ensure there is a reasonable
margin on both sides (justified on the left).
• Please do not include your name on your assignment.
• It is preferable (in THIS course) to go slightly over the 500 word limit
rather than under.
• Please also check the ‘Notes on referencing’ at the top of the Assessment
section of the Moodle site. It is essential that you cite the edition of The
Future of War which you are actually using, so that you don’t give
inaccurate page numbers.
• “Paragraphs contain a topic and a series of statements explaining what is
relevant about this topic. Together these make up its ‘main idea’.”
(Redman and Maples, Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide, 5th
edition, London: SAGE Publications, 2017, p.94.)
You probably wouldn’t need more than four paragraphs in total for an
exercise of 500 words, although there isn’t a strict rule. You also don’t
need to structure the short exercises like a high school essay (eg.
introduction, three ‘body paragraphs’ and a conclusion which essentially
repeats what you’ve already said). Avoid any unnecessary repetition. Let
the logic of your content dictate your structure, rather than the other way
• Demonstrate your careful reading of The Future of War with carefully
selected, and absolutely accurate, quotations. Anyone else’s words
MUST be in quotation marks. When you are paraphrasing, you need to
express something in your own words.
• If you want to change something from the original in your own quotation,
then please indicate your change in square brackets. This also includes
[…] when you are omitting something from the original within your
For example, on page 174 of the paperback edition there is a typo. “In
2015, like de Madriaga over eighty years earlier…”. (Bold added) The
correct name is de Madariaga. So you could signify this in one of two
1) “In 2015, like de Madriaga [sic] over eighty years earlier…” “sic”
is Latin for “thus. This is a scholarly convention to tell your reader
that you have noticed an error in the original.
2) Or you could simply put your own correction of the name in square
brackets, thus: “In 2015, like de [Madariaga] over eighty years
Sometimes you want to quote from The Future of War and (perfectly
appropriately) introduce the quotation with something such as
“Freedman states that”…..
But occasionally this can lead to an inadvertent attribution of an
opinion or belief to Freedman, when he may actually be synthesising
the logical inference of someone else’s argument. So make sure you
make the context sufficiently clear.
Hypothetical example in a student essay:
‘Freedman states that “Whatever states did within their own borders was
up to them.” ’ (Lawrence Freedman, The Future of War, 136.)
Without the context, there is an implication that Freedman himself
isn’t interested in human rights, and instead prioritises the
sovereignty of states. A more accurate representation is below:
‘Freedman suggests that the logical inference of the draft UN Charter of
1945 was that “Whatever states did within their own borders was up to
them.” ’ (Lawrence Freedman, The Future of War, 136.)
• Lawrence Freedman clearly intended to address a broad readership in The
Future of War, and hence has written it in a manner which is often more
casual and colloquial than we would expect to see in a scholarly work
intended for expert readers only. Try to avoid his stylistic habits of
‘dangling participle clauses’ and a heavy use of phrasal verbs (please see
the ‘Basics Workbook’ in the Moodle site for explanations and
examples). Try to maintain an appropriate academic register in your
written work – this simply means not writing in an overly casual,
conversational manner, with slang or the pronoun ‘you’, and so on.
• Notwithstanding the above, it is acceptable to use the first-person
pronoun – I – occasionally in your assignments, in order to convey your
individual interpretation. This can occasionally help you avoid awkward
passive constructions or inadvertent generalisations.
• “Titles of major works, programmes, etc. (such as book and journal titles)
are set in italics or underlined; Parts of works or minor works (such as
articles within journals or chapters within edited collections) are put in
‘single quotation marks’.” (Redman and Maples, Good Essay Writing: A
Social Sciences Guide, p.104) For example, put the title of The Future of
War in italics, but the titles of its chapters (if you need to give those) just
in single quotation marks.
• Try to allow yourself enough time to print off and proofread a hard
copy of your assignments, before submitting the final version on
FUTURE OF WAR (with assistance from Dr. Neil Ramsey, EMS
• In Chapters 20-22, Freedman explores more recent ways in which
military theorists are contemplating the future of war.
• Amongst the emergent issues which he discusses are the ways in
which technological advances associated with hybrid war, cyberwar
and drones are influencing warfare.
• He discusses the complicated concept of hybrid warfare, and how this
relates to information warfare. How do ‘hybrid warfare’ and
‘cyberwar’ overlap?
• Although Freedman draws the reader’s attention to the various rapid
and far-reaching technological developments, he appears reluctant to
predict that new technologies can fundamentally change the nature of
• In Chapters 23-25, Freedman raises further questions about how
contemporary military theorists are planning for future wars.
• In these final chapters, the rise of new geopolitical concerns and the
continuing importance of low-level intrastate conflicts is explored.
• The role of cities – particularly ‘mega-cities’ – as the predicted ‘new
frontier of warfare’ (Robert Muggah, cited by Freedman) is discussed.
• In conclusion, Freedman considers basic questions about the
predictability (or lack of predictability) of future conflicts.
Please answer ONE question, in approximately 500 words, drawing on
evidence from within Chapters 20-25, Part 3, of The Future of War.
This should be submitted through Turnitin by 2359, Sunday May 16, and is
worth 10% of the course.
1) How does hybrid warfare differ from conventional warfare? Focussing
mainly on Chapter 20, briefly summarise some of the ways in which
‘hybrid warfare’ has been defined, and how ‘information warfare’ has
become part of this.
2) Focussing mainly on Chapter 21, briefly summarise examples of why
cyber attacks have been commonly imagined as potentially
devastating. Do you consider that Freedman suggests that the
significance of the threat may have been overestimated?
3) How can robots and drones be employed in war? Focussing mainly on
Chapter 22, discuss the reasons why unmanned technologies, such as
robots and drones, have been perceived as transforming the nature of
4) Focussing mainly on Chapter 23, discuss the potential impact of
climate change and resource depletion as causes of future war.
5) In Chapter 24, Freedman alludes to the work of Graham Allison, and
his concept of the ‘Thucydides Trap’. What is meant by ‘the
Thucydides Trap’? Focussing on Chapter 24 (and where relevant
Chapter 25) summarise the reasons why the great powers – especially
(in the context of this discussion) China and the United States – might
be lured into such a trap.

Type of service: Editing
Type of assignment: Essay
Subject: History
Pages/words: 3/600
Number of Sources: 1
Academic level: Master’s
Paper Format: Harvard
Line spacing: Double
Language style: UK English

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