Definition of inclusive education
The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (UNESCO, 1994) defines inclusive education as schooling that includes all children with varying disabilities, to access regular classroom with adequate support. Murphy (1996) states inclusion as “placing individuals with special needs in age appropriate general education classrooms without taking into consideration the degree or nature of their needs”
Legislature supporting Inclusive Education
Through world agencies such as the United Nations Convention of the Rights of Persons with disabilities (2006) and the Sustainable Development Goals (United Nations 2015) inclusive practises have been promoted. As a member country to these agencies, Zimbabwe adopted the inclusive framework to education in 1994. Zimbabwe has no specific law on inclusion. It has numerous acts and policies that support inclusive education, such as the Education Act, (1987, 2006) the Disabled Persons Act (1996), as well as practice circulars (Chireshe, 2011; Majoko, 2017).
Factors affecting the success of Inclusive Education
The expectation of educators’ roles and responsibilities has changed with the paradigm shift towards inclusive education (Agbenyega & Deku, 2011). The requirement envisages for teachers to concurrently cater for typical and atypical students within the mainstream classroom (Allday, Neilsen-Gatti, & Hudson, 2013). However, being inclusive in a mainstream classroom requires for the teacher to have a unique skill set that traditionally they do not possess (Chireshe, 2011).
Although it is important to have the laws and policies that support inclusive practices, that alone is not adequate for the success of a programme (Florian, 2011). Key competencies such as skills and knowledge affect the success of the inclusive programme (Florian, 2012). These skills are key in adapting the teaching to be effective for all students. (Agbenyega & Deku, 2011). Kuyini, 2011’s study, showed that some teaching within inclusive classrooms is inadequate and falls short of meeting diverse learner needs.
Teachers’ feelings regarding inclusion are not solely based on philosophical arguments, but rather on the ’how’ it can be effected (Burke & Sutherland, 2004). Teachers require key competencies as well as progressive mind-sets in the effecting of practice from policy (Hornby, 2010). Key competencies such as knowledge and skills have been highlighted as necessary for effective teaching for diverse learners in a classroom (Vaughn & Bos, 2012).
Type of service: Dissertation services
Type of Assignment: Dissertation/Thesis proposal
Number of sources: 100
Academic level: Doctoral
Paper format: APA
Line spacing: Double
Language style: UK English