CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Information
The concept of job satisfaction is an important factor in determining employee motivation and career drive irrespective of the nature of work or industry. The current study focused on lecturer’s professional drive and career experiences in Nigerian Public Universities and whether these can serve as determinants for lecturers’ job satisfaction. In this case, the background information will be split further into subsections which include; determinants of job satisfaction, overview of employee motivation, professional drive among academic staff, career experiences in public universities, and the context of Nigerian public Universities respectively.
1.1.1 Overview of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction in an organisation is of great significance especially when it comes to productivity of employees and accomplishment of a good relationship between management and staff in an institution (Holmberg, 2016). Indeed, an organisation’s success largely depends on whether its personnel enjoy their job or not and if they feel that their efforts are rewarded (Wambui et al., 2016). Consequently, when job satisfaction is lacking among employees in an organisation, many parties are likely to suffer apart from internal stakeholders to include external stakeholders such as customers, shareholders, and many others that are directly associated to an organisation or institution (Holmberg, 2017). Past scholars have put emphasis on job satisfaction antecedents but it still remains a major concern to most organisations globally as cases of lack of job satisfaction are still experienced (Weiler, 2016). Essentially, job satisfaction remains an important factor towards successful employee engagement as well as the extent of discretionary in terms of team efforts that is achievable (Tomaževič et al., 2014). As such, performance of individuals in terms of their work duties and responsibilities is likely to be affected especially when they do not feel that they are satisfied with the nature of their jobs, in addition to their quality of life (Weiler, 2016). There are many factors that in overall determine the level of job satisfaction among employees and this include although it is not limited to; established relationships between supervisors and co-workers, job security, fringe benefits, promotion opportunities, contentment with pay, working conditions or environment, fair practices and policies, organisational culture, nature and level of appreciation, sense of belonging and identifying with an organisation, nature and type of leadership, personal hobbies and interests, new challenges in the work environment, nature of duties or work assigned to an employee, job flexibility, and nature as well as frequency of feedback among others (Holmberg, 2016).
1.1.3 Professional Drive among Academic Staff
The main source of motivation and drive among employees emanates from the feeling of satisfaction and engagement which is easily associated with the overall performance of the academic staff in their productivity and performance at their workplaces (Pruvot et al., 2015). Moreover, this entails having increased commitment to personal and professional achievements in their career, a fact that makes reference to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors that promote job satisfaction (Pruvot and Estermann, 2017). Some of the main factors promoting employee engagement which are behind the professional drive among academic staff include; inspiration, autonomy, transparency and honesty, cultural diversity, adopting to the learning and organisational culture, pay structure that is fair, flexibility, career growth and development, recognition, bonus factor, and communication respectively (Estermann and Kupriyanova, 2016).
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The chapter presents a critical analysis of literature on the topic of the study based on different researchers and authors. Thus, the chapter will be split into three main sub-sections, namely; theoretical review, empirical review, and conceptual review respectively. Through the critical assessment of past studies and theories on the topic, the researcher will be able to identify research gaps on the areas of research.
2.2 Theoretical Review
The section on theoretical review will cover a number of theories on motivation, career progression and drive, job satisfaction, and employee or human resources management. The review will entail a critical focus on the developments of the theories, their application in the current research, as well as on the criticisms that they have faced from various theorists and researchers. Diagrams will also be used where necessary in elaborating various concepts of purposes of enhancing clarify of the ideas. The theories that will be reviewed in this case on career experiences and professional drive include; John Holland Theory of Career Choice, Theory of Work Adjustment, Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise, Self-concept Theory of Career Development, Frank Parson’s Theory of Career Matching, Donald Super Career Development Theory, and Social Cognitive Career Theory. On motivation and job satisfaction, the review will focus on; Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory, Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs Theory, McClelland’s Need Theory, McGregor’s Participation Theory, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Locke’s Discrepancy Theory, Argyris’s Theory, and Urwick’s Theory Z respectively.
2.2.1 John Holland Theory of Career Choice
John L. Holland’s theory of career choice is traced back to his article that was first published in the year 1958 and later expounded in the year 1959 in the journal of applied psychology (Athanasou, 2009). The theory which provides the foundation of career and vocational choices makes reference to personality types that guide individuals towards making their personal decisions as far as professional alignment is concerned (Eikleberry and Pinsky, 2015). According to the theory, it is argued that occupational choices and preferences are founded on an individual’s underlying character which serves as basic premise (Rounds, 2008). Thus, this makes reference to work environments and vocational personalities and how they impact the overall decisions by individuals to pursue their specific professional goals. Essentially, Holland came up with a total of six personality types which initially were conforming, persuasive, supportive, esthetic, intellectual and motoric but later they were changed to conventional (organizers), enterprising (persuaders), social (helpers), artistic (creators), investigative (thinkers), and realistic (doers) respectively (Holland, 1997). Important to note that there is a correlation that is demonstrative of the later six components of personalities as postulated by Holland which can be used to explain the fundamental reasons why individuals make career choices. The following figure presents the six personalities in a summary form.
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